Difficulty pronouncing individual sounds during speech such as “r”, “l”, or “s”.
Implementing alternate methods of communication to express thoughts and desires. Common types of augmentative communication include sign language, picture symbol communication boards, and electronic devices.
3Expressive and receptive language delays/disorders
Difficulty understanding what is heard and expressing thoughts and desires with words. Examples may include limited vocabulary, difficulty following directions, or using incomplete sentences and inappropriate grammar.
Disruptions in the flow or production of speech such as stuttering.
Error patterns in speech that impact overall intelligibility. A common phonological error is substituting all sounds made in the back of the mouth with those sounds produced in the front of the mouth (e.g., saying “tan” for “can” or “dum” for “gum”).
6Reading comprehension and written language disorders
Difficulty processing, remembering, understanding, and retelling written material.
Developmental disorders that effect communication and social skills. These may include autism spectrum disorders and Down Syndrome.
Irregularities in the way the voice sounds. Common voice disorders may be due to vocal nodules or polyps.